Carbon capture, utilisation and storage will be an important part of the portfolio of technologies and measures needed to achieve climate and energy goals. In the International Energy Agency Clean Technology Scenario (CTS), a cumulative 107 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (Gt CO2) are permanently stored in the period to 2060, requiring a significant scale-up of CO2 storage from today’s levels. This report analyses the implications for the global energy system of CO2 storage facilities not being developed at the scale and pace needed to follow the optimised pathway of the CTS. By limiting CO2 storage availability to 10 Gt CO2 over the scenario period, the analysis provides insights into the additional measures and technologies that would be required in the power, industrial, transport and buildings sectors in order to achieve the same emissions reductions by 2060 as the CTS.
The Limited CO2 Storage scenario variant (LCS) finds that restricting the role of CO2 storage would result in higher costs and significantly higher electricity demand, with 3 325 gigawatts of additional new generation capacity required relative to the CTS (a 17% increase). The main reason is that limiting the availability of CO2 storage would require much more widespread use of electrolytic hydrogen in industry and the production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels. More generally, the LCS would increase reliance on technologies that are at an earlier stage of development. Beyond the scenario period of 2060, constraints on CO2 storage availability would also limit the availability of many carbon dioxide removal options, and may therefore not be consistent with the achievement of long-term climate goals.